The History of Central Kalimantan | Central Borneo Tourism Information
Thursday May 23rd 2019

The History of Central Kalimantan

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palangkaraya1Central Kalimantan is one of a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Borneo. Its capital is  Palangkaraya. Central Kalimantan has an area of 157,983 km ² and a population of approximately 2,202,599 people, comprising 1,147,878 males and 1,054,721 females (Indonesia Population census 2010).

In the 14th century Maharaja Suryanata, governor of Majapahit who ruled in the kingdom of Negara Dipa (Amuntai) with the area from Tanjung Silat to Tanjung Puting with areas called Sakai, the area of Barito river, Tabalong, Balangan, Pitap, Alai, Amandit, Labuan Amas, Biaju Kecil (Kapuas-Murung), Biaju Besar (Kahayan), Sebangau, Mendawai, Katingan, Sampit and Pembuang where the head of these areas are called Mantri Sakai, whereas Kotawaringin region at that time was a separate kingdom.

Furthermore, Central Kalimantan is still included in the Sultanate of Banjar, the successor State Dipa. In the 16th century, with King Maruhum Panambahan as the ruler ,who married with Siti Nyai Biang Lawai , a daughter of the Patih Rumbih Biaju from Dayak tribe. Biaju soldiers often involved in revolution in Kingdom Banjar, even with the action of the cutting head (ngayau) eg the younger brother of Hnai Biang Lawai ,Panglima Sorang (Nana Sarang) to help quell the rebellion of King Maruhum’s  children Kiai Di Podok, as well as in the Prince Suryanata II (Sultan Agung). King Maruhum commissioned Dipati Ngganding to gevern the Kingdom of Kotawaringin .

Dipati Ngganding replaced by his son law, the Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma, the song of King Maruhum, the first king of Kotawaringin with the title Ratu Kota Waringin. Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma was the husband of Andin Juluk Binti Dipati Ngganding and Nyai Tapu binti Mantri Kahayan . In Kotawaringin Prince, Dipati Anta-Kasuma married local women and have children, Prince Amas and Princess Lanting.

Prince Amas who holds the tittle Ratu Amas which is the king Kotawaringin, his successor continues rules as King of Kotawaringin  until now, namely the Pangeran Ratu Alidin Sukma Alam. The first contract with the Dutch VOC- Kotawaringin occurred in 1637.

According to Radermacher’s reports, in 1780 there have been indigenous governments like Kyai Ingebai Suradi Raya ,Mendawai regional head, Kyai Ingebai Sudi Ratu, Sampit regional head,  Raden Jaya regional head of Pembuang and Kotawaringin kingdom with its king who holds the tittle Ratu Kota Ringin.

Under the treaty on August 13, 1787, Sunan Nata Alam from Banjarmasin handed areas in Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan and some part of South Kalimantan (including Banjarmasin) to the VOC, while the Sultanate of Banjar owned the remaining territory along the northern Kuin, Martapura until Tamiang Layang and Mengkatip, a protectorate area VOC, Netherlands.

On May 4, 1826 Sultan Adam al-Watsiq Billah of Banjar reiterates the submission of Central Kalimantan with other regions to the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. Furthermore, the heads of regions in Central Kalimantan under the Dutch East Indies.

According to Gazette van Nederlandisch Indië in 1849, the areas in the region are included in zuid-Ooster-Afdeeling. According to van den Bêsluit Minister van Staat, Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie, on August 27, 1849,  Central Kalimantan’s regions classified as dependent states and districts in the Sultanate of Banjar.

Before the XIV century, Central Kalimantan is a pristine area, no migrants from other regions. At that time the only means of transportation is by boat. In 1350, Hindu kingdom began entering the area of Kotawaringin. In 1365, ruled by the Hindu kingdom of Majapahit.

Some chiefs appointed as the Minister of the Kingdom. In 1520, when the southern coast of Borneo ruled by the Sultanate of Demak, Islam began to develop in Kotawaringin. In 1615 the Sultanate of Banjar establish the Kotawaringin Kingdom, which includes the coastal areas of Central Kalimantan. These areas are:

Sampit, Mendawai, and Pembuang. While other areas remained free, led by the chiefs, and even many of those who withdrew into the interior. In the area of Pematang Sawang Pulau Kupang , near the Kapuas, in Bataguh, once, a major war  happened.

Dayak woman named Nyai Undang plays a role in that war. Nyai Undang’s Act was accompanied by the gallant knights, including Tambun, Bungai, Andin Sindai and Tawala Rawa Raca. At a later date the name Tambun Bungai, the gallant hero, became the name of Kodam Tambun Bungai XI, an Indonesian Army Base in Central Kalimantan. In 1787, with the agreement between the Sultan of Banjar with VOC, impacted Central Kalimantan, almost all regions, controlled by the VOC.

On May 1st 1859 the Dutch Government opened a port in Sampit. In 1917, the government began to lift the occupation of local people to become government officials, with direct supervision by the colonists themselves. Since the nineteenth century, the invaders started to enter an expedition in to the interior of Borneo in order to strengthen their position.

But the indigenous population, not just easily influenced and controlled. Resistance to the invaders made until the twentieth century. Frontal resistance, ended in 1905, after the fall of the Sultan Mohamad Seman Kusuma Negara at Menawing River and buried in Puruk Cahu. In 1835, Protestant Christianity began to enter into the interior. Until the proclamation of Indonesian independence, August 17, 1945, the invaders are not able to control the overall Kalimantan. Indigenous peoples persist and hold resistance.

In August 1935 there was a battle between the Punan Dayak tribe lead by Oot Marikit with the colonizers. The battle ended with a peace between Oot Marikit in Sampit by his son in law Pangenan or Panganon with the Dutch Government. According to Hermogenes Ugang, in the 17th century, a Roman Catholic missionary named Antonio Ventimiglia ever came to Banjarmasin. With persistent struggle and perseverance loitered across the big river in Borneo with a boat that has been fitted with an altar for the sacrifice of the Mass, he succeeded in baptizing three thousand people of Dayak Ngaju became Catholic.

His job is centered in the upper Kapuas (Manusup) and the influence of his work was up to the hill. However, on the orders of Sultan Banjarmasin, Father Anthony Ventimiglia then killed. The reason for the killing was because Father Ventimiglia loves Ngaju’s peoples , while at that time the people of Dayak Ngaju have a poor relationship with Sultan Surya Alam because Biaju (Ngaju) are the supporters of Sultan Agung ( a rival of Sultan Alam Surya).

With the murdered of Father Ventimiglia, then thousands of people Ngaju’s Catholics who have been baptized by him, return to the original faith of their ancestors  What remains is the sign of the cross once introduced to them by Pastor Ventimiglia. But the sign of the cross has lost its true meaning. Sign of the cross just became magical fetishes objects (amulets) that merit as a repellent reinforcements that until now known as Lapak lampinak in Dayak language or in the language of Banjar called Cacak Burung.

In the colonial period, the Dayak in Central Kalimantan, even after socializing with outsiders, but remain in their own environment. In 1919, young Dayak have a formal education, seek advancement for the people of his tribe by establish a States of Dayak  and  Cooperation of Dayak, which was pioneered by Hausman Babu, M. Lampe, Philips Sinar, Haji Abdul Gani, Sian, Lui Kamis, Tamanggung Tundan, and many more. The state of Dayak and Dayak  cooperatives, move actively until 1926. Since then, the Dayak people became more familiar with the circumstances of the times and start moving. In 1928, the two organizations merged into Pakat Dayak, which engaged in social, economic and political. Those actively involved in these activities are Hausman Babu, Anton Samat, Loei Kamis. Then proceed by Mahir Mahar, C. Luran, H. Nyangkal, Oto Ibrahim, Philips Sinar, E.S. Handuran, Amir Hasan, Christian Nyunting, Tjilik Riwut, and many more.

Pakat Dayak continue the struggle, until the dissolution of the Dutch government in Indonesia. In 1945, Dayak Unity based in Pontianak, and has branches all over Borneo, led by J. Uvang Uray, F.J. Palaunsuka, A. Djaelani, T. Brahim, F.D. Leiden. In 1959, Dayak Unity dissolved, then joined PNI and Partindo. Finally Partindo of West Kalimantan merged and  became IPKI. In the area of East Kalimantan stand Persukai or Persatuan Suku Kalimantan Indonesia (Tribal Unity of Kalimantan Indonesia) led by Kamuk Tupak, W. Bungai, Muchtar, R. Magat, and many more.

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