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Wednesday August 16th 2017

Mandau and Talawang, Dayak Traditional Weapons of Central Borneo

Mandaumandau of dayak central borneo

Borneo is one of the 5 major islands in Indonesia. Actually the island is not only a place of origin Dayak people alone, because there are also a people of Banjar (South Kalimantan) and the Malays. Among Dayaks themselves, each other grew and develop its own culture. However, they all has a typical Dayak weapon called Mandau. In everyday life, this weapon can not be separated from its owner. That is, wherever the owner goes, mandau will always be taken because it serves as a symbol of honor or identity.

In ancient times, mandau is considered to have magical elements and is only used in certain rituals such as war, headhunting, fixtures tribal dance, and ceremonial paraphernalia.

Mandau believed to have levels of efficacy or potency. Its magic power was not only derived from the manufacturing process through certain rituals, but also in the tradition of headhunting (beheading opponents). In that time (before the 20th century), the more opponent successfully beheading (kayau), thenthe more powerful the mandau is.The opponent’s dead hair usually used to decorate the hilt of the mandau. They believe that the people who died in-kayau, his spirit inhabits the mandau so that it becomes magic. However, the current mandau function has changed, ie as objects of art and culture, souvenirs, collectibles and weapons for hunting, prune shrubs and farming.

The Structure of Mandau

1. The Blade

mandau blades are made of forged iron plates shaped like a flat-long machete and pointy (like the top half of the notched flat). One side of the blade sharpened, while the other side is left a little thick and blunt. There are several types of materials that can be used to make a mandau, ie iron montallat, matikei iron, and steel. That said, most good quality mandau is made ​​of stone mountain specifically merged to become very strong and sharp and is given a touch of decoration with gold, silver, or copper. This type of Mandau made ​​only by certain people.

the creation of a mandau blade begins with  iron expands in furnace with coals of fire. The wood used to make the coals are ironwood because it can result in a higher heat than other types of wood. After the wood becomes coal, then iron which will become mandau blades be placed over the coals for it to expands. Then, using a hammer, the iron then forged.

Forging is done repeatedly to get the desired form of mandau blades. Once the blade is formed, the next step is to make an ornament of grooves and serrations on the eyes as well as the holes on mandau blades. That said, the number of holes on a mandau represents the number of victims who ever got the mandau slash. How to make ornaments is similar to a way to make mandau blades, ie by expands it with hammers repeatedly to get the desired shape. After that, then the mandau blade smoothed by using a grinding.

2. The Handle ( Hulu Mandau )

The handle (hulu mandau) made ​​from deer antlers that carved to resemble the head of a bird. The entire surface of the handle carved with various motifs such as a dragon’s head, beak, gyre, and hooks. At the end of the handle there is also adorned with animal fur or human hair. Shape and carvings on the mandau hilt can distinguish the place of origin the mandau was made​​, ethnicity, and social status of its owner.

3. The cover

The holster of mandau (kumpang) are usually made ​​of thin wood plates. The top was covered with bone-shaped bracelet. The middle and bottom covered with a woven rattan as the clamp amplifier. As a decoration, usually placed baliang feathers, tanyaku feathers, beads and amulets sometimes also inserted. In addition, the mandau is also equipped with a small knife in a  leather gloved strapped and attached to the hand of the holster and belt of woven rattan.

Cultural Values

The making of mandau, if observed carefully contain values ​​that can be used as a reference in everyday life for its people. These values ​​include beauty (art), diligence, thoroughness, and patience. Value of art reflected in a mandau forms are made in such a way that radiates beauty. Meanwhile, the value of persistence, thoroughness, and patience is reflected in the manufacturing process that requires diligence, thoroughness, and patience. Without these values, ​​may not resulted in a beautiful mandau.

Talawang

Talawang of dayakTalawang is a tool used by the Dayak tribe for self-defense or self protection from enemy attacks.

Talawang made ​​of lightweight but strong wood. Elongated hexagon shape with a length of approximately 1 meter and a width of approximately 0.5 meters with an estimated to cover human chest  from enemy attack with a mandau or lance in a fight in the war. The whole front field of talawang usually carved in the shape mask (Hudo), flames, and double stranded.

In addition to self-defense as a complementary tool, talawang also be used as a complement to the dance.

Dayak Maanyan tribe of Central Borneo

Maanyan  tribe is one of the sub tribe Dayak and also one of the Dusun tribes (Eastern Barito Group) that is also called  Maanyan Dusun. Dusun tribes belonged  Ot Danum’s, one of the Dayak’s groups that is also called the  Dayak Maanyan.

Dayak Maanyan
Total Populations
around 71.000
Regions with sicnificant population
Central Borneo: 71.000.
Language
Maanyan. Kapuas, Banjar , Indonesia
Religion
Kaharingan, Cristian, Moslem
nearest etnic group
Banjar, Dusun Witu, Paku,Dusun Malang

 

Maanyan tribes inhabiting the eastern part of Central Kalimantan, especially in East Barito district and part of the South Barito district called Maanyan I. Maanyan tribes also inhabited the northern part of South Kalimantan regency precisely in Tabalong called Dayak Warukin. Dayak Balangan (Dusun Balangan) located in the District Balangan and Dayak Samihim  located in the district Kotabaru are also classified into Maanyan tribe. Maanyan tribe in South Kalimantan classified as Maanyan II.

Maanyan is emerging  in the census in 2000 and is 2.80% of the population of Central Kalimantan, formerly Maanyan tribe incorporated into the Dayak tribe in the census of 1930.

According to the Maanyan, before occupying the residence of now, they are from the downstream (South Kalimantan). Although now East Barito region was not included in South Kalimantan, but the area was formerly included in the Sultanate of Banjar, before it merged into the Dutch East Indies in 1860, which is the Sultanate of Banjar that have shrunk and have no access to the sea, because the regions surrounded by the Netherlands.

According to the website “Joshua Project” ,Maanyan tribe are reach 71,000 populations. According to oral literature of Maanyan tribe, after the attack Marajampahit (Majapahit) to the Kingdom of Nan Sarunai, this tribe is scattered into several sub-ethnic. The tribe is divided into 7 subetnis, including:

  • Maanyan Patai
  • Maanyan Paku
  • Maanyan Paju Epat (pure maanyan)
  • MaanyanDayu
  • Maanyan Paju Sapuluh (influeted by Banjar)
  • Maanyan Jangkung(influeted by Banjar)
  • Maanyan Benua Lima/Paju Lima (influeted by Banjar)
  • Maanyan Warukin (influeted by Banjar)

The uniqueness of Maanyan’s tribe, among other are they practiced agriculture, elaborate funerals, and called shaman (healer) to treat their disease.

Brotherhood of Dayak tribe and Banjar tribe

Since ancient times there has been a relationship of brotherhood and kinship ties as well as a high tolerance between ethnic Banjar and Dayak tribes.

Marriage of Sultan Banjar with the Daughters of Dayak

From the oral tradition of Dayak Ngaju be known, the wife of  first King Banjar named Biang Lawai , a Dayak Ngaju’s woman . Meanwhile, the second wife of first King Banjar named Noorhayati, according to the oral tradition of the Dayak Maanyan, derived from their ethnicity. So the woman who gave birth Banjar kings that ever existed was Dayak. In the Banjar’s saga mentions one of the wife of the third King of Banjar, Sultan Hidayatullah is also the from of Dayak tribe, the daughter of Banun Khatib, a prominent Dayak Ngaju. From the womb of that woman , was born Marhum Panembahan who then ascended as the throne with the title of Sultan Mustainbillah. And Sultan  Tamjidillah Al-Wazikoebillah (son of Sultan Muda Abdurrahman bin Sultan Adam) was born out of a daughter of mixed Chinese Dayak name Nyai Dawang. (Norpikriadi, Putri Dayak di Tanah Banjar, Opini Banjarmasin Post Sabtu, 21 Januari 2006).

Sultan Muhammad Seman

One of the military wing of  Prince Antasari was the the famous tough and loyal,  a group of Dayak Siang Murung tribe  with its leader Tumenggung Surapati. Kinship relations through of Prince Antasari came from the marriage with Nyai Fatimah , the sister of their chief, Surapati. From this Dayak woman was born Sultan Muhammad Seman who would continue his struggle until killed by the Dutch bullet in 1905. In times of struggle, Muhammad Seman also married two woman of the Dayak Ot Danum.His Son, Gusti Berakit, in 1906 also married the daughter of the head of the Dayak tribe living on the banks of the river Tabalong. As a form of his high tolerance, while  his in-law died, Sultan Muhammad Saman initiated the convening of tiwah , the customary funeral of Dayak tribe. (Norpikriadi, Putri Dayak di Tanah Banjar, Opini Banjarmasin Post, Sabtu 21 Januari 2006; Kaharingan).

Puteri Mayang Sari

Princess Mayang Sari ruling  Jaar-Singarasi, East Barito regency was the daughter of the first king of the Islamic Banjar (Sultan Suriansyah) from his second wife Norhayati , a Dayak woman, grandson of  Dayak Maanyan Islam leader Labai Lamiah.  Although Mayang Sari is aMuslims, her leadership was  very thick to indigenous Dayak, She often visited a Dayak villages and very concerned about justice and prosperity of Dayak people in her time. That’s why she was very respected and her grave enshrined in Banjar traditional house in Jaar, East Barito district.

 

Banjar War

The close friendship of Banjar-Dayak, as well because the two tribes involved in a close alliance against the Dutch in the War of Banjar. Once forced in Banjarmasin and Martapura, Prince Antasari and his followers and descendants switch the resistance to the upstream river and along the Barito river  to the upper river of Barito, where there are a diverse ethnic of Dayak involved. The war between the coalition of ethnic Dayak and ethnic Banjar versus the Dutch and his minions on the other, as the nature of war in general, far more grief than joy. Both tribes  already feel kinship, where possessions, soul, blood and tears spilled together in the middle of a fire fight repel invaders. Several war heroes and of Banjar war and  Barito war fro ethnic Dayak:

  • Tumenggung Surapati, died in 1904 , burried in Puruk Cahu, Murung Raya regency.
  • Panglima Batur, from Dayak Bakumpai tribe, burried in Komplek Makam Pangeran Antasari, North Banjarmasin, Banjarmasin.
  • Panglima Unggis, burried in Ketapang village, Gunung Timang, North Barito.
  • Panglima Sogo, that involved in the sinked of Onrust ship belongs to the Dutch on December 26,1859 in Lewu Lutung Tuwur, burried in Malawake village, Teweh Tengah, Barito Utara.
  • Panglima Batu Balot (Tumenggung Marha Lahew), a woman leader that ever attacted Fort Muara Teweh in 1864-1865,burried in Malawaken village(Teluk Mayang),  Central Teweh district, Barito Utara.
  • Panglima Wangkang from Dayak Bakumpai tribe in Marabahan,son of Damang Kendet and his mother, a  Banjar woman from Amuntai.
  • Montalat war in 1861 cause the death of the two sons of the Queen Zaleha burried in Majangkan village, Gunung Timang , North Barito.

Dammung Sayu

Dammung Sayu is the community leader of Dayak Maanyan Paju Sapuluh who had been instrumental in helping one of   Sultan Banjar’s relatives hiding in hia territory while being pursuit by the Dutch . And because that, the Dutch finally burned the settlement of these tribes are located in Magantis,Dusun Timur, East Barito. Banjar royal party who fought against the Dutch colonialists raised Dammung Sayu as commander with the title of Tumenggung and provide a set of yellow umbrella and royal paraphernalia.

Sangiang

Tolerance between Banjar and Dayak tribes, also can be seen from the Dayak Ngaju’s sacred literary , Panaturan. Pictured there, King Banjar (King Maruhum) with Dayak daughter who became his wife Siti Nyai Diang Lawai are part of Dayak Ngaju’s ancestors. In fact they are also projected as Sangiang (divine man) who lived in Lewu Tambak Raja, one of the places in Lewu Sangiang (Village of the Gods). Because the King is Muslim , then in panaturan is also mentioned there is a mosque. (Marko Mahin, Urang Banjar, 2005)

Balai Hakey

In sociological-anthropological between Banjar and Dayak ethnic is likened dangsanak tuha and dangsanak anum (older and younger brother). Urang Banjar is first being Muslims followed by some ethnic Dayak bahakey (turn Islam),called the other as a brother. They still maintain tolerance until now. Everytime when the Dayak community held an ijambe , tiwah and other Dayak’s ceremony, Dayak communities always provide Hakey Hall, where Muslims are welcome slaughter and cook their own food is permissible according to Islamic beliefs.

Intingan and Dayuhan

Tolerance between Banjar with the Dayak tribe in the mountains of Bukit Meratus, Tapin area in South Kalimantan, can also be seen in the mythology of these tribes. In their view, Urang Banjar was a descendant of the Intingan (Bambang Basiwara), namely dangsanak anum (younger brother) of their ancestor named Dayuhan (Ayuhan / Sandayuhan). Although sturdy with ancestral beliefs, the Dayak Bukit always done a religious visit to Banua Halat Mosque which by their mythology, was built by Intingan, when their ancestors’ younger brother is embraced Islam.

 

Benang Bintik , Batik of Central Borneo

Although rarely heard, in Central Kalimantan there is also a batik handicraft: Batik Benang Bintik.

Maybe you often heard  batik crafts, and many other types of batik that you know, such as batik tulis, printed batik, but this one is definitely you rarely hear, the batik Benang Bintik.

The Certifications for batik as an Indonesian native cultural products issued by the United Nations agency UNESCO is an important moment for the development of batik art in the country.

Batik positive image in the international community continues in the country when the President of the Republic of Indonesia (RI) set the date of October 2, 2009 as National Batik Day. The condition is a positive impact on businesses and artisans batik cloth in various regions in Indonesia, not to mention Central Kalimantan with batik motifs “Benang Bintik” as  Typical Dayak tribe’s Batik in Central Kalimantan.

Some time ago, the use of Benang Bintik is still limited to formal activities such as school and office uniforms. As a result, the impression of Batik Benang Bintik then better known as a fashion and formal wear for the ceremony or ceremonial occasions such as weddings.Now, Batik Benang Bintik is increasingly recognized, the variety of clothing from Benang Bintik are often used in activities such as festivals, cultural activities and other arts activities.

Batik Benang Bintik is a unique batik linen in Central Kalimantan. “Benang” in the local language means a strand of white linen, while the “Bintik” means the design or spots that engraved on the “Benang”. The peculiarity lies in the batik motifs that reflect the culture of the Dayak tribe, the indigenous of the area. Motives outlined in batik linen taken from the paintings or carvings used by the Dayak people in ancient rituals or ceremonies.

Motifs in Batik Benang Bintik are also affected by the beliefs of the Dayak called Kaharingan. Although now most of the Dayak people have embraced the official religion in Indonesia, such as Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, but they do not leave ancestral beliefs called Kaharingan. This belief evolved through symbols, whether in the form of natural objects in space, the earth, and in human beings. One manifestation of these beliefs are symbols Batang Garing or the Tree of Life that represents a vertical relationship between the man with the Lord (Raying Hatala) and horizontal relationships between humans and other creatures on earth.

Kaharingan tree was later to be the main characteristic of Batik motifs in Benang Bintik alongside another typical motifs, like motif tuyan Kawit, jars, spears, shields, balain nihing, and so on. Although sometimes there are other motifs that adorn Batik linen Benang Bintik, but the motive is simply an additional form of variation of the craftsmen. Until now, Batik Benang Bintik has been patented by the UNESCO as the work of the Indonesian nation.

In terms of types, Benang Bintik classified into different motif, including the motive Batang Garing, Huma Betang motif,  carvings motifs, motifs of weapons, dragon motifs, Balanga motives, mixed motives and other motives. For the base color, Benang Bintik have bolder colors like red maroon, blue, red, yellow and green. There is also a darker material like black and brown. Raw material for Benang Bintik generally use silk  type, semi-silk linen and cotton linen.

The distinction

Batik Benang Bintik is one of the  invaluable cultural assets of the people of Central Kalimantan. This Batik is not only contain a high artistic value, but also has a very distinctive character that becomes the identity of Central Kalimantan, especially the Dayak tribe. The character of these batik motifs seen in typical ethnic that also become distinguishing feature from other batik. In addition, the Dayak handicrafts also has a great selection of patterns and models that are relevant to the needs of the times. If at first batik was only worn at ceremonies or weddings, Batik Benang Bintik is now often used in a variety of important events such as art festivals and cultural events.

Creating a high quality and high artistic merit of Batik Benang Bintik is not an easy job. Plus, the tools used by the craftsmen are still very simple so that influential in terms of the timeliness of the completion of each unit of production. But for the craftsmen, the amount of production is not a benchmark but rather on the quality and value of art.

As with other batik, the making process of Benang Bintik also have to go through several stages. The first phase starts from setting up equipment and raw materials such as linen dobi, rayon flowers, patterned silk, plain silk, dye, wax, and soda. Raw materials are generally imported from Java. The next stage is a tasting or providing motif on plain fabric using a canting, followed by pencoletan or giving color to the motif. After that, the fabric then has been given a basic color pattern consisting of the neptol color or cent colors  (commonly referred as penjegeran).

The next stage is plorotan or boiling to clean wax attached to the fabric pattern. Fabric that has been boiled then washed thoroughly and dried. For the fabrics that colored with cent color should not be exposed to direct sunlight, but enough aerated for 12 hours while inverted so the color will  evenly distributed. Once dry, Batik Benang Bintik is ready to ship, either in the form of cloth or in the form of clothing like skirts, gloves, pajamas, shirts, and scarves.

Batik Benang Bintik  is sold at varying prices depending on the fabric used. For semi-silk linen sold at Rp. 50,000 per meter.

Gallery of Benang Bintik

a-model-pose-with-benang-bintik-as-her-costume batik-benang-bintik batik-benang-bintik-central-kalimantan batik-benang-bintik-with-batang-garing-motif batik-benang-bintik-with-shield-motif benang-bintik-1 kalimantanbenangbintik thumbs_batik-benang-bintik-with-belanga-as-motif

Sanaman Mantikei, Pure Iron of Central Kalimantan

Once upon a time in the hamlet of Nusa kuluk Riam Kaleka Habambang, left Samba river, there lived a family of farmers. The farmer has a son named Tinjau. One day Tinjau went to deliver food to his mother and father in a field. In the middle of the road, suddenly he saw a person similar to his  father. The man then took him to walk to one direction. Tinjau obeyed, because he felt it could not hurt to follow his own father. They both went on until we came to a wide and clean roads.

Finally arrived at a betang (traditional longhouse of Dayak). In which many people had gathered. They then climbed into the betang. An elder of the gentlemen said to a man similiar to Tinjau’s father : “Where did you get this son of man? What if he knows the secret of our work that can not be seen bt other creatures, especially human beings. “

“I found this kid at the end of my street, before reaching our village roads. Suddenly he seemed to me and he saw me too. Fortunately, I could change my face, disguised as his father. Maybe he’s a man who comissioned to lurking our work. I’m in hurry so I brought he here. It’s up to headmaster to take action, “said the man who brought Tinjau earlier.

Chairman of the spirits said again: the Son of man is not allowed to get away with it. Later, when he escaped, he would tell about all our works. Try to lock him up in big garantung (gong) . “Tinjau then held under a garantung. He realized that he was kidnapped by a spirits. Fortunately, the floor boards under the garantung is not flat. If not, he could have died out of breath. After Tinjau locked, they began to organize the division of labor for the next day, to make stone tools, and melt into sanaman mantikei (true or pure iron).

His parents wonder why Tinjak not come today to deliver food as usual. Feeling hungry, they were forced to return home. Apparently Tinjau was not there. The whole family and the whole village participated looking fro. But all failed. Tinjau disappear like swallowed by earth .

While in betang, Tinjau questioned by the elder of spirits.

“Did you see our deeds?”, asked the spirit.

The clever Tinjau then replied: “Yes. I saw all your actions clearly. “

Elder spirits said: “Then try to cover him with rakung (large basket made of bark).” Tinjau then closed by their rakung. “Oh,” said Tinjau, “do not cover me with rakung because I could see all your works very clearly.”

“Then try with pangalau (a type of fishing traps from woven rattan loosely), so he did not see our work,” said the head of the spirits.

Tinjau shouted: “Boy! Do not you cover me with this pengalau. I became blind and deaf at all. “Spirits laughed uproariously excited, because Tinjau can not see the fruit of their actions. In fact, because pengalau plaited infrequently will facilitate Tinjau to see the fruit of their actions. Their devices used to cover Tinjau are tools that are still used by traditional blacksmith until today in Central Kalimantan.

 According to the spirits work, to speed up the smelting of stone into the iron , around the tubs, planted three statues of clay with a specific shape. Fish-shaped head, tail-shaped buffalo. The heead of chameleon with a fish tail and the pig head with alligator tails’ shape.

From their conversation, there are several requirements in their work , among others, should not be seen or talk to women, joking or talking dirty and fight. In addition it should be close to the water and there are high wooden branches. Last conditions closely associated with technical equipment. Regarding the type of rock is a rock that is in the soil.

Three days and three nights duration Tinjau notice their work from making equipment, melting rocks into iron and hammered into weapons and equipment. They are so busy working, and forget about Tinjau, so he can escaped and go home. His family and the whole village are very joyfull by the return of Tinjau. They were stunned to hear about his story, especially concerning the treatment of iron which at that time was not known by the people.

A few years later, Tinjau took his family to build Sanaman mantikei as he has seen in the spirits’ village . They do it well because the equipment is quite perfect with excellent results as well.

Former sanaman Mantikei’s processing place is seen on the right of Mantikei rivers, Manten river and Kaleka Nusa kuluk Habambang cascade. Sanaman Mantikei possesses a softer but sharper and weapons made from this material is easily bent. Rocks containing sanaman mantikei can only be found in the Mantikei river, the way to get it is by digging it from the ground.

 Because this iron is so famous , until now the area along the Samba river is called District Sanaman Mantikei.

The Battle of Kupang Island

palangkaraya1Once, Temanggung Sempung awarded with a daughter named Nyai Undang, a daughter who was very beautiful in appearance, like the goddess fell from heaven. Then Temanggung Sempung intends to take Sangalang,the grandson  of Karangkang to be his son-in-law.

So spread the news everywhere about the beauty of Nyai Undang, and the news came to King of Laut Kingdom was named Sawang. Then came King Sawang with his hosts, with intent to marry Nyai Undang. And he promised with all his hosts, if he meant to marry Nyai Undang was not accepted, he will declare war to the city of Kupang’s Island.

Long story short, shout Accompanied by cheers and shouts of his escorts, then King Sawang arrived at the palace of Nyai Undang. But alas, when the king Sawang would set foot on Nyilu Wooden-door palace gates, King Sawang fell, exhausted all his limbs joints, such as those who are not powerful anymore. Seeing such things then Nyai Undang took Dohong Raca Holeng Joha, Kahajun Duun Suna Taja Panulang Karing, Hitan Iung pundan, Sanaman Mantikei(a metal machete) from Hulu Katingan Kuman Raha. Because King Sawah was Sawuh (berserk), Nyai Undang berserk, all the army of King Sawang in Banama killed. King Sawang army suffered defeat and surrender. And those who live taken as captives and made Jipen or slave.

Some of the peoples of King Sawang and King Nyaliwan (King of the North) are still alive can escape and bringing news of the battle. Upon hearing this that all the people of King Sawang vowed to take revenge for the death of its King. All the armies of King Sawang that become prisoners had eventually mating and married with the woman of Dayak tribe, so that they become one large derivative which eventually also became the ancestors of the  Bakumpai tribe is Tamanggung Pandung Tandjung Kumpai Dohong, from Barangas tribe is Suan  Ngantung Rangas Tingang, and from Alalak tribe is Imat Andjir Serapat.

The news that the King Sawang Kingdom will strike KupangIsland get to Nyai Undang. So Nyai Undang sent their representatives to Tumbang Pajangei. And along with a messenger was sent a Lonjo Bunu or  Bunu spear as letters. The message was sent to Rambang, Ringkai, Tambun, Bungai in Tumbang Pajangei. Which purpose of the Bunu spear is requesting reinforcements to fight.

With no much thought and a waste of time, Rambang and Ringkai brought Temanggung Bungai Andin Sindai the son of Temanggung Sempung ,the most daring and brave, and King Tambun Tandjung Ringkin Duhong the son of Serupoi . Both are heroes who pangkamenteng pangkamamute ( the strongest and the bravest). Since both of these heroes has never suffered defeat.

The names of the commanders who took part to defend the island of Kupang is:

1. Njaring, the son of Ingoi from Hulu Miri
2. Bungai the son of Ramping from Tumbang Miri
3. Temanggung Kandeng the nephew of Piak Batu Nocoi Riang Naroi
4. Isoh Batu Nyiwuh
5. Etak kampong Tewah
6. Temanggaung Handjungan from Sare Rangan
7. Temanggung Basi Atang from Penda Pilang
8. Temanggung Sekaranukan from Tumbang Manyangen
9. Temanggung Renda from Baseha
10. Temanggung Rangka from Tumbang Rio
11. Temanggung Kiting from Tanjung Riu
12. Temanggung Lapas from kampung Baras Tumbang Miwan
13. Temanggung Basir Rumbun from teluk Haan
14. Temanggung Hariwung from Tumbang Danau
15. Temanggung Dahiang bapa Buadang from Sepang Simin
16. Temanggung Ringkai and Tombong from Tangkahen
17. Temanggung Uhen from kampung Manen
18. Temanggung Kaliti from Rawi
19. Rakau Kenan from Tumbang Rungan
20. Temanggung Kandang Henda Pulang from Sugihan (Guhong)
21. Temanggung Andin from Pulau Kantan

Soon the cooperation and mutual understanding with each other, then the city was ready complete with weapons. So they gave the city the name Pamatang Sawang town mean always ready to welcome the enemy. Nyai Undang’s palace headed by Temanggung Rambang. All the warlords of the Barito river, the Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, Seruyan had gathered in the town. All in One with determination with the basis of cooperation. Soon, the enemy (Asang) also came. The number of Asang who comes approximately 10,000 men.

Before the war began , Temanggung Rambang and Temanggung Ringkai divine and sang. Then all of a sudden the eagle came and signaled win. With no fear of death, they fight and attack the enemy which was much bigger than them. With the tools and all the weapons heritage of the Dayak ancestors, the battle went into horror. Blood flows from the body of a dead enemy armies, moisten the soil and makes the river turn red in color. But the Commander-Chief of all Dayak tribe no one was injured or killed by enemy weapons, because they wear heritage of Ranying.

Saw the agility, excellence and unflinching of Nyai Undang’s army , then they gave up with Marup. In the battle so fierce that Temanggung Rambang is a very meritorious because he can cut the head of Asang. All the heads of the enemy were killed.

Once the battle is finished then held a big party to reward Temanggung Rambang with blood ofchicken, pig, cow ,and blood of people who had been killed, so that no plague ,says the Indigenous Dayak. In the party, all the delegates from all over Borneo Dayak tribe invited. The party had gathered approximately 34 representatives of the Dayak. Whose names are written as follows:

1. Manan from hulu Kahayan
2. Londoi from Tabahoi
3. Djato from Bahoi
4. Ibong from Buit Kalimantan Utara
5. Ikuh from Tinggalan (Tidong)
6. Tingang from Bukat (Dayak Bukat)
7. Kuit from hulu Rundit Bt Lupar
8. Parekoi fromSerawai
9. Tunda Luting from Samba Katingan
10. Dekoi from Malahoi
11. Unei from dayak Sahiei
12. Tamban from Katingan
13. Mahat from Mahalat
14. Etas from hulu Kapuas
15. Dalong from Hampotong
16. Umbing from Manuhing
17. Tukoh from Mamaruh
18. Gana from Mentaya
19. Nuhan from Saruyan
20. Bakan from Rungan
21. Sindi from Miri
22. Bahon from Bahaun
23. Sawang from Siang
24. Djohan from Taran
25. Sota Munan from Maanyan
26. Pahan from Kalangan
27. Sakai from Serawai
28. Manoui from Rakaoi
29. Punan from Heban
30. Hinan from Dusun
31. Djaman from Kabatan
32. Ritu from Uru
33. Lati from Pari
34. Nanau from Lamandau

palangkaraya1After completion of the party, then comes the big party to marry Temanggung Sangalang with Nyai Undang in Pematang sawang, Kupang Island. And besides that, Mangku Djangkan also held a big party on the island of Kantan to mated Njaring the son of Ingoi with Manjang, the daughter of Mangku Djangkan, the feast took seven days and nights long.

A note about Kupang Island Pematang Sawang. The King of the city is changing hereditary. And the city also changed frequently. Only in  tetek tatum (news and story) not told about the change the city. Nowadays in that place there are cannons and relics of the former. There also build a a river ditch that named the Terusan Bataguh . Until now often called Bataguh city. Ulin wood pillars and walls of the city was extented of not less than 5 square kilometers.

(Source: Kalimantan Membangun written by  Tjilik Riwut).

The History of Central Kalimantan

palangkaraya1Central Kalimantan is one of a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Borneo. Its capital is  Palangkaraya. Central Kalimantan has an area of 157,983 km ² and a population of approximately 2,202,599 people, comprising 1,147,878 males and 1,054,721 females (Indonesia Population census 2010).

In the 14th century Maharaja Suryanata, governor of Majapahit who ruled in the kingdom of Negara Dipa (Amuntai) with the area from Tanjung Silat to Tanjung Puting with areas called Sakai, the area of Barito river, Tabalong, Balangan, Pitap, Alai, Amandit, Labuan Amas, Biaju Kecil (Kapuas-Murung), Biaju Besar (Kahayan), Sebangau, Mendawai, Katingan, Sampit and Pembuang where the head of these areas are called Mantri Sakai, whereas Kotawaringin region at that time was a separate kingdom.

Furthermore, Central Kalimantan is still included in the Sultanate of Banjar, the successor State Dipa. In the 16th century, with King Maruhum Panambahan as the ruler ,who married with Siti Nyai Biang Lawai , a daughter of the Patih Rumbih Biaju from Dayak tribe. Biaju soldiers often involved in revolution in Kingdom Banjar, even with the action of the cutting head (ngayau) eg the younger brother of Hnai Biang Lawai ,Panglima Sorang (Nana Sarang) to help quell the rebellion of King Maruhum’s  children Kiai Di Podok, as well as in the Prince Suryanata II (Sultan Agung). King Maruhum commissioned Dipati Ngganding to gevern the Kingdom of Kotawaringin .

Dipati Ngganding replaced by his son law, the Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma, the song of King Maruhum, the first king of Kotawaringin with the title Ratu Kota Waringin. Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma was the husband of Andin Juluk Binti Dipati Ngganding and Nyai Tapu binti Mantri Kahayan . In Kotawaringin Prince, Dipati Anta-Kasuma married local women and have children, Prince Amas and Princess Lanting.

Prince Amas who holds the tittle Ratu Amas which is the king Kotawaringin, his successor continues rules as King of Kotawaringin  until now, namely the Pangeran Ratu Alidin Sukma Alam. The first contract with the Dutch VOC- Kotawaringin occurred in 1637.

According to Radermacher’s reports, in 1780 there have been indigenous governments like Kyai Ingebai Suradi Raya ,Mendawai regional head, Kyai Ingebai Sudi Ratu, Sampit regional head,  Raden Jaya regional head of Pembuang and Kotawaringin kingdom with its king who holds the tittle Ratu Kota Ringin.

Under the treaty on August 13, 1787, Sunan Nata Alam from Banjarmasin handed areas in Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan and some part of South Kalimantan (including Banjarmasin) to the VOC, while the Sultanate of Banjar owned the remaining territory along the northern Kuin, Martapura until Tamiang Layang and Mengkatip, a protectorate area VOC, Netherlands.

On May 4, 1826 Sultan Adam al-Watsiq Billah of Banjar reiterates the submission of Central Kalimantan with other regions to the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. Furthermore, the heads of regions in Central Kalimantan under the Dutch East Indies.

According to Gazette van Nederlandisch Indië in 1849, the areas in the region are included in zuid-Ooster-Afdeeling. According to van den Bêsluit Minister van Staat, Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie, on August 27, 1849,  Central Kalimantan’s regions classified as dependent states and districts in the Sultanate of Banjar.

Before the XIV century, Central Kalimantan is a pristine area, no migrants from other regions. At that time the only means of transportation is by boat. In 1350, Hindu kingdom began entering the area of Kotawaringin. In 1365, ruled by the Hindu kingdom of Majapahit.

Some chiefs appointed as the Minister of the Kingdom. In 1520, when the southern coast of Borneo ruled by the Sultanate of Demak, Islam began to develop in Kotawaringin. In 1615 the Sultanate of Banjar establish the Kotawaringin Kingdom, which includes the coastal areas of Central Kalimantan. These areas are:

Sampit, Mendawai, and Pembuang. While other areas remained free, led by the chiefs, and even many of those who withdrew into the interior. In the area of Pematang Sawang Pulau Kupang , near the Kapuas, in Bataguh, once, a major war  happened.

Dayak woman named Nyai Undang plays a role in that war. Nyai Undang’s Act was accompanied by the gallant knights, including Tambun, Bungai, Andin Sindai and Tawala Rawa Raca. At a later date the name Tambun Bungai, the gallant hero, became the name of Kodam Tambun Bungai XI, an Indonesian Army Base in Central Kalimantan. In 1787, with the agreement between the Sultan of Banjar with VOC, impacted Central Kalimantan, almost all regions, controlled by the VOC.

On May 1st 1859 the Dutch Government opened a port in Sampit. In 1917, the government began to lift the occupation of local people to become government officials, with direct supervision by the colonists themselves. Since the nineteenth century, the invaders started to enter an expedition in to the interior of Borneo in order to strengthen their position.

But the indigenous population, not just easily influenced and controlled. Resistance to the invaders made until the twentieth century. Frontal resistance, ended in 1905, after the fall of the Sultan Mohamad Seman Kusuma Negara at Menawing River and buried in Puruk Cahu. In 1835, Protestant Christianity began to enter into the interior. Until the proclamation of Indonesian independence, August 17, 1945, the invaders are not able to control the overall Kalimantan. Indigenous peoples persist and hold resistance.

In August 1935 there was a battle between the Punan Dayak tribe lead by Oot Marikit with the colonizers. The battle ended with a peace between Oot Marikit in Sampit by his son in law Pangenan or Panganon with the Dutch Government. According to Hermogenes Ugang, in the 17th century, a Roman Catholic missionary named Antonio Ventimiglia ever came to Banjarmasin. With persistent struggle and perseverance loitered across the big river in Borneo with a boat that has been fitted with an altar for the sacrifice of the Mass, he succeeded in baptizing three thousand people of Dayak Ngaju became Catholic.

His job is centered in the upper Kapuas (Manusup) and the influence of his work was up to the hill. However, on the orders of Sultan Banjarmasin, Father Anthony Ventimiglia then killed. The reason for the killing was because Father Ventimiglia loves Ngaju’s peoples , while at that time the people of Dayak Ngaju have a poor relationship with Sultan Surya Alam because Biaju (Ngaju) are the supporters of Sultan Agung ( a rival of Sultan Alam Surya).

With the murdered of Father Ventimiglia, then thousands of people Ngaju’s Catholics who have been baptized by him, return to the original faith of their ancestors  What remains is the sign of the cross once introduced to them by Pastor Ventimiglia. But the sign of the cross has lost its true meaning. Sign of the cross just became magical fetishes objects (amulets) that merit as a repellent reinforcements that until now known as Lapak lampinak in Dayak language or in the language of Banjar called Cacak Burung.

In the colonial period, the Dayak in Central Kalimantan, even after socializing with outsiders, but remain in their own environment. In 1919, young Dayak have a formal education, seek advancement for the people of his tribe by establish a States of Dayak  and  Cooperation of Dayak, which was pioneered by Hausman Babu, M. Lampe, Philips Sinar, Haji Abdul Gani, Sian, Lui Kamis, Tamanggung Tundan, and many more. The state of Dayak and Dayak  cooperatives, move actively until 1926. Since then, the Dayak people became more familiar with the circumstances of the times and start moving. In 1928, the two organizations merged into Pakat Dayak, which engaged in social, economic and political. Those actively involved in these activities are Hausman Babu, Anton Samat, Loei Kamis. Then proceed by Mahir Mahar, C. Luran, H. Nyangkal, Oto Ibrahim, Philips Sinar, E.S. Handuran, Amir Hasan, Christian Nyunting, Tjilik Riwut, and many more.

Pakat Dayak continue the struggle, until the dissolution of the Dutch government in Indonesia. In 1945, Dayak Unity based in Pontianak, and has branches all over Borneo, led by J. Uvang Uray, F.J. Palaunsuka, A. Djaelani, T. Brahim, F.D. Leiden. In 1959, Dayak Unity dissolved, then joined PNI and Partindo. Finally Partindo of West Kalimantan merged and  became IPKI. In the area of East Kalimantan stand Persukai or Persatuan Suku Kalimantan Indonesia (Tribal Unity of Kalimantan Indonesia) led by Kamuk Tupak, W. Bungai, Muchtar, R. Magat, and many more.

Tangkiling Hill and a Stone Flanking the Sin

Down the hill in the Palangkaraya, will not complete if you have not climbed  on this one hill, Bukit Tangkiling. Located far from the city center, exactly Jl Tjilik Riwut Km 32 toward outside the city. From all over view, appear lush wooded hills.

To enter the foothills area, from District Banturung, we have to cover a distance of 1600 m, through the occasional paved roads flooded when it rains heavily. New difficulties felt after being on a ridge when having to go through a steep and ramp  lay in front of the eyes.

Tangkiling hill, with a high about 500 m, is believed to save millions of legends and magical powers. Standing tall, towering sky, located on the border of the village of Bantarung-Tangkiling Bukit Batu District, Palangkaraya. It took about 40 minutes to reach the peak.

Stone Flanking the Sin

That said, in the past, the surrounding area in the form of a river, covering the eye could see, what appears is water. Like the story of the Malin Kundang, the prodigal son, Tangkiling too, condemned for iniquity. Transformed the river where he sailed into the land and hills. While the boat and all the luggage, turned into a large rocks as big as houses.

Tangkiling itself, becauseof his sins, must be willing wedged between his chambers, now known as the stone flanking sin. Indeed, the stone flanking sin, believed, derived from Tangkiling’s  chamber that swap by the wind and then changes petrified like any other object.

“If the person possess a sin, they can not be passed between two rocks, and squeezed,” said Nyai Handang, a Tangkiling Village resident who often climb the hill with her family.  She told  the story based on the belief that they receive hereditary.

Once, she said, there are sort of memorial or ritual performed near the stone, the function asks the forgiveness of sins which have been conducted. The offerings also presented, extending a variety of traditional cakes and incense that sting the nose. “We pray in accordance to what religious belieft that we profess ,” she added. Has anyone stuck there? Laughing, she said, knowingly, it had never happened, except for that befell of Tangkiling, so it’s wedged between two rocks.

“Maybe, because its time has changed, the power was never revealed again,” she said. Even so, she argues, the belief in the magical power of the stone, is still outstanding and trusted by the community. In fact, several accidents have occurred in the surrounding  of Tangkiling Hill.

While Juhran, a former employee at the Village Banturung Radio Communications, said, in Bukit Tangkiling there are a variety of stone, and the stone of flanking sin  is only one of it. According to him, there banama stone, Ring stone and  crater stone that located on a hilltop.
Crater Stone , believed to be the incarnation of Tangkiling’s boat that capsized, and petrified. Crater Stone , by the surrounding community is also known as the rinjing stone, because of its shape which resembles rinjing or skillet.
“When I was on duty, I was going up the hill every day. Due at the top of the hill is the most effective place to deliver and receive information, its voice more clearly,” he said.

Giant Centipede

According to the public trust again, according to the narrative of Ayesha, around rocks flanking sin, lived a giant centipede, the size of a palm tree.
“In fact, in addition to the stone flanking sin, there is also halilipan (centipede-red) of palm stems,” she said. However, as with stones flanking sin, giant centipedes never again reveal itself, as in the bare earth disappeared. “The time has changed, making them appear never again,” she reasoned.

Just like the narrative of Nyai Handang, upon arrival back at base camp, in the pouring rain, a group of school children were surprised by the screams one of their friend. Suddenly, the people who were there gasp, turns out a guy teenager was bitten by a centipede as big as thumb. Indeed, centipedes were crawling animals with poison. Its venom can cause fever, prolonged.

“It could be, these centipedes, is thegiant centipedes grandson that ever told”, they shouted chimed.

Wadi , Central Borneo’s Tyipical Culinary

In Indonesia, especially in Kalimantan, there are many different kinds of cuisine or specialties from different areas, whether it is a native food from the region or adaptations from other regions. In Central Borneo, there are many types of  typical cuisine of the region, and this article is about the typical cuisine that are well known in most parts of Borneo.

That food is wadi. Wadi which usually smells very pungently is a typical food that is usually made from fish (cork fish, catfish, etc.) and pork or wild boar . These foods can be categorized as ‘decay’ foods .

Decay here does not mean simply left to rot, but the meat of fish or pork here before being stored would smeared with secret herbs or powders, which people of Dayak Ma’anyan used to call it sa’mu or called kenta in Dayak Ngaju language.

Sa’mu or kenta is the main seasoning for wadi  made of white glutinous rice first on-roasted until brown and then blended or pounded manually. Today many are making samu  of corn. They say rice or corn better threshed manually.

Basically making wadi is easy. First of all the meat cleaned , then the meat is soaked in a solution of salt water about 5 to 10 hours. Then the meat is removed and drained. Once dry enough, the meat is mixed with samu or kenta. After flattening, the meat can be stored in a jar or a box of glass or airtight plastic. Close tightly and store approximately 3 to 5 days. Especially for pork or boar recommended storage period of more than one week.

Altough it’s relative on easy making it, but the taste may be less tasty or sour even be edible. Therefore, although the theory is simple, only certain people who have expertise in its making process which usually can create the great taste. But basically the secret key lays on soaking the meat in brine and the seasoning.

Wadi is not eaten immediately after completion, but it should be fried or cooked first and then get eaten. For information, fish’s wadi mostly processed by the Banjar, while wadi from pig or boar being processed mostly by the Dayak Ma’anyan and Ngaju.

Death Ceremony of Dayak Maanyan tribe

This funeral is a Kaharingan religious heritage  embraced by most  dayak Ma’anyan in antiquity time

Dayak Ma’anyan , like many other dayak’s sub tribe was originally practiced the old Kaharingan religion, which is the form of ancestor worship, mixed with animism elements, that to date are strongly influence the culture inherited to new generations that pratices Samawi religious (mostly Christians and Catholics).

In many areas, the Christian and Catholic missionaries reached inland villages and hamlets in 1970, therefore, previously, most of the Dayak Maanyan in Five Continents ( Banua Lima ) in remote areas practiced Kaharingan , that by the time by the government was “forced” into Hindu Kaharingan.

Therefore, some Dayak Maanyan death ceremonies are a cultural heritage imbued with Kaharingan Religion embraced by  Dayak Maanyan’s ancestors.

Basically, in law, indigenous Dayak Maanyan divided into three regions of customary law ,namely  Banua Lima region, Paju  Ampat and Paju Sepuluh with a various funerals forms . This article is about the Funerals ceremony in  Banua Lima.

The Dayak Maanyan used to illustrate that death is a beginning of movement of the spirit (adiau or amirue) to the

glory of the new world (tumpuk adiau) a lush, peaceful, serene, rich where there is perfection, health, ageless and eternal life . A Belian (shaman) of the dead (wadian matei)  describe amirue/adiau will delivered to tumpuk janang jari, kawan nyiui pinang kakuring, wahai kawan intan amas, parei jari, kuta maharuh, welum sanang, puang mekum maringin, arai hewu. (Spirit of the deceased will be guided by the shaman in the journey to the place / a lush village , a verdant and beautiful coconut and areca , studded with diamonds and gold, a fertile rice, delicious food, live well, stay healthy and happy).

Basically, the Ritual of the death is a series of ceremonies ranging from death to several ceremonies to take adiau / spirit into Tumpuk adiau / the afterlife.

Here are the list of the ceremonies :

  1. Ijambe (pronounce : Ijamme’) , is funeral ceremony which basically is burning the bones of the dead. Implementation of the ceremony takes ten days ten nights. and requires a very large cost, with animal sacrifice such buffaloes, pigs and chickens. Because of the high cost, this ceremony is conducted by a large family and for some people (already dead bone) from several families.
  2. Ngadatun, this funerals reserved for those who died and killed (not natural) in the battle ,for the leaders or prominent people. The ceremony takes seven days and seven nights.
  3. Miya, Membatur (fix tomb) ceremony, the ceremony takes five days and five nights. Graves decorated and through this ceremony the family  can “send” food, clothing and other necessities to the “adiau” has died.
  4. Bontang, is the highest level and the “luxurious” ceremony ,its an honor ceremony from the families who are still living to the dead, the ceremony takes five days and five nights, the cost can be outstanding, sacrifice dozens and hundreds of pigs, jumbo chicken its essence is to giving / send “prosperity and stability” to the spirit / adiau in “bontang” (paradise), the ceremony of this ceremony was not a funeral ceremonies, but a joy ceremony .
  5. Nuang Panuk , Membatur (fix tomb) ceremony , a notch below Miya ceremony, because its implementation is only takes one day and one night, and the grave of the dead were only made in one level, with offerings of Dayak  cakes 7 tumpi wayu and 7 lapat wayu and various other types of cakes,7 pieces altogether in a fairly complicated arrangement.
  6. Siwah, is a continuation of Miya ceremony held after forty days after the Miya ceremony. Siwah ceremony is only takes one day and one night. The essence of this ceremony is the inaugural of the spirit of the dead after being called in a  Miya ceremony to be pangantu pangantuhu , or “friend” for the family that has not been died.
What is interesting from the ceremony were many elements of art in it, either tumet Leut (rhymes sung by a beautiful voice) and typical dance  of Dayak Ma’anyan such as giring-giring or Nampak or Nandrik.
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